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How to cite

This page gives examples of citing different types of sources using the APA (7th edition) citation style. References can be compiled manually, but using free citation managers like Zotero or Google Scholar can make the job easier.

In text citation

The symbols in a map have limitations with respect to their minimal size. In order to render map symbols legible, to show their difference in size and to reproduce them with no difficulties, minimum sizes and minimum distances must be determined and recommended (Spiess et al., 2005). To minimum dimensions Zentai (2011) notes, that the reproduction method is the another factor considerably affecting the legibility of the orienteering maps.



Verbyla, D. L. (2002). Practical GIS Analysis (1st ed.). CRC Press.

Robinson, A. H., Morrison, J. L., Muehrcke, P. C., Kimerling, A. J., & Guptill, S. C. (1995). Elements of Cartography (6th ed.). Wiley.

Book chapter

Zentai, L. (2014). Implementation of Cartographic and Digital Techniques in Orienteering Maps. In Cartography from Pole to Pole (pp. 19–29). Springer.

Mildorf, T., Jezek, J., Cerba, O., Malewski, C., Templer, S., Sredl, M., & Charvat, K. (2014). Open Data Platform for Data Integration, Visualisation and Map Design. In Thematic Cartography for the Society (pp. 3–11). Springer.

Journal article

Zentai, L. (2011). Legibility of Orienteering Maps: Evolution and Influences. The Cartographic Journal, 48(2), 108–115.

Semrád, L., Stachoň, Z., & Krtička, L. (2020). Poruchy barvocitu a mapy pro orientační běh [Issue of Colour Blindness and the Maps for Orienteering]. Geodetický a kartografický obzor, 108(8), 7.

Conference paper

Petrovič, D. (2011). Some experiences in making orienteering maps in Slovenia from airborne laser scanning data. Proceedings of the 25th International Cartographic Conference, 3–8.


IOF Map Commission. (2019). International Specification for Orienteering Maps (ISOM 2017-2). International Orienteering Federation.


Boström, M. (2011). The Utilization of GPS In Orienteering Mapping In Urban Helsinki and Rural Kenya [Master’s thesis, University of Helsinki].


Krtička, L., & Uppill, A. (2020, July 8). Mapping of multilevel structures on sprint orienteering maps: Recent developments and proposals for solutions [Presentation]. 19th International Conference on Orienteering Mapping, online.

Web page

OCAD AG. (2021). OCAD Wiki.